What is meant by fermentation?
Fermentation is the process which transforms grapes into wine. To be precise, there are two fermentations. The first is the ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION, which is a chemical transformation during which the sugars contained in the grapes are transformed into alcohol and carbon dioxide. To initiate and control this natural transformation of the must, we add selected yeasts (thereby avoiding the fermentation stopping too early). Then the alcoholic fermentation continues until the wine becomes “dry”. It depends on the style of wine as to which method of fermentation is used. The method normally used for WHITE WINES is where the alcoholic fermentation takes place in without contact with the grape solids. FERMENTATION USING MACERATION takes place with the must in contact with the grapes solids, which is the method generally used for red wines. The second fermentation is MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION, is a bacterial transformation, which turns the malic acid into lactic acid. Malolactic does not always take place, and for the most part it does not take place in white wines, except for those which are matured in wood. This fermentation integrates the wine, making it more well-rounded, with soft and gently tannins, giving the wine hints of butter and vanilla.
What is meant by the grapes are de-stemmed?
De-stemming is done by machine and is a process whereby the stems are separated from the grapes. This is an extremely important process as the stalks do not add anything positive to wine. If this process is not carried out effectively, the wine can have an unpleasant, unripe, herbaceous or vegetal flavour. De-stemming is extremely carefully carried out in all Canaletto’s wines.
What is meant by remontage?
Remontage is a technical vinification term. Remontage takes place in the fermentation vat, where the wine is stirred, ensuring that the liquid is pumped over the “cap” formed by the grape skins. It gives the perfect amount extraction of both colour and tannins.
What is meant by delestage?
Delestage is a technical vinification term. Delestage is when all the liquid is completely taken out from the fermentation vat, leaving only the “cap” formed by the grapes skins on the bottom. A layer of carbon dioxide forms on the “cap” which prevents the skins from oxidation. The liquid is then pumped again into the fermentation vat, onto the ‘cap’. This operation gives the perfect extraction of polyphenols and colour, in order to give fruity aromas to the wine and a good amount of suppleness.
D.O.C, D.O.C.G., I.G.T
In Italy there is a very stringent regulation system for wine, which is controlled by law. In particular regions, a wine can become D.O.C. G. (Denominazione d’Origine Controllata e Garantita) or D.O. C. (Denominazione d’Origine Controllata) if they are made according to the strict rules set by the local council. To become doc or docg a wine must be from a specified area, from a legally regulated vineyard, which has the correct type and number of vines. This serves to limit the productivity of each vineyard, encouraging the producer to make higher quality wine. The type of vine and the way in which it is trained, as well as the maximum quantity of grapes per hectare, the degree of alcohol allowed and the ageing processes are also carefully controlled. If a wine is not produced according to all these rules, it cannot be a doc or a docg wine. Docg wines are ‘guaranteed’ and a special government-controlled docg neck label is glued on each bottle indicating the precise total of bottles produced. In order to receive the permit for applying the docg label, the wine producer need to go through several checks and audits that confirm the rules have been followed.
If one or more rules have been broken, the wine is then appointed ‘Vino da Tavola’ – table wine or IGT (Indicazione Geografica Tipica).
This does not necessarily mean that the wine is low quality .
IGT wines are produced with at least 85% of the grapes cultivated in the local area whose name the appellation represents i.e. Venezie IGT, must have a minimum alcohol degree, a certain grape variety and yield per hectare, etc.